Why is the Mediterranean basin a biodiversity hotspot?
Why is the Mediterranean such an outstanding place? The Mediterranean basin is recognised as a biodiversity hotspot: its flora diversity is outstanding with 15,000 to 25,000 species, 60% of which are unique to the region. About one third of the Mediterranean fauna is endemic.
How the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 impacted marine biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea?
The opening of the Suez Canal coupled with a rise in sea temperature increase led to the settlement of thousands of tropical species, either in the form of ‘Lessepsian migrants’, named after Ferdinand de Lesseps, a French diplomat and designer of the Suez Canal , or as ‘Erythrean aliens’ .
What are the environmental issues in the Mediterranean region?
The Mediterranean is already under multiple environmental pressures due to rapid seawater warming, increased heat wave frequency, pollution, alien species invasion, and over-fishing. A deeper understanding of ocean acidification with other ongoing rapid changes is therefore crucial.
How have human activities affected the eastern Mediterranean environment?
in the Mediterranean area. Mediterranean biodiversity and the ecosystems that support it are particularly sensitive to human impact, such as tourism, agriculture, urbanisation, fire, fishing, pollution, introduction of non-indigenous species…
Why is the Mediterranean Basin important?
The Mediterranean Basin is the third richest hotspot in the world in terms of its plant biodiversity (25,000 species), and one of the most important areas on Earth for endemic plants.
Is there any marine life in the Suez Canal?
The Lessepsian migration (also called Erythrean invasion) is the migration of marine species across the Suez Canal, usually from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea, and more rarely in the opposite direction.
Who discovered Suez Canal?
In 1854, Ferdinand de Lesseps, the former French consul to Cairo, secured an agreement with the Ottoman governor of Egypt to build a canal 100 miles across the Isthmus of Suez.
What are the 5 main impacts of climate change in the Mediterranean countries?
The paper reviews the various environmental changes and the risks posed by these changes in the five major interconnected domains, namely water resources, ecosystems, food safety and security, health, and human security.
What impact does Mediterranean agriculture have on the environment?
In certain North African and eastern Mediterranean countries, climate change may result in surface water reductions of more than 35 percent. Rainfed agriculture, which, in certain areas of North Africa represents more than 90 percent of total agricultural land, will be particularly affected.
How have animals adapted to the Mediterranean climate?
Animals have adapted to this sparse and rough terrain by becoming agile climbers, foraging over larger areas, and varying their diet to include the often scrubby brush lands. Plants have adapted by storing water through thick bark or waxy coverings, and by growing thorns to prevent animals from eating them.
Why is Mediterranean climate suitable for human settlements and development?
With high atmospheric pressure, the air sinks. This creates cloudless conditions and sunny skies, particularly in the summer months. The movement of the anticyclones (high pressure systems) influences the rainfall patterns found in Mediterranean climates.
What is the purpose of the Kiel Canal?
Kiel Canal, German Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (“North Sea–Baltic Sea Canal”), important waterway in northern Germany, extending eastward for 98 km (61 miles) to connect the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. The canal constitutes the safest, most convenient, shortest, and cheapest shipping route between the two seas.
How long are the locks on the Kiel Canal?
The locks are 45 metres (146 feet) wide by 327 metres (1,072 feet) long. The Kiel Canal, which runs from the North Sea, at the mouth of the Elbe River, to the Baltic Sea, at Kiel, Germany.
What is the purpose of the Sankt Johann Canal?
The canal constitutes the safest, most convenient, shortest, and cheapest shipping route between the two seas. It runs from Brunsbüttelkoog (on the North Sea, at the mouth of the Elbe River) to Holtenau (at Kiel Harbour on the Baltic Sea ).
What is the name of the canal in Germany?
Kiel Canal. Kiel Canal, German Nord-Ostsee-Kanal, English North Sea–Baltic Sea Canal, waterway in northern Germany, extending eastward for 98 km (61 miles) from Brunsbüttelkoog (on the North Sea, at the mouth of the Elbe River) to Holtenau (at Kiel Harbour on the Baltic Sea ). The canal has been enlarged twice and is today 160 metres…