What is cardiomyocyte differentiation?
Cardiomyocytes are the chief cell type in the heart and their coordinated contraction as a mass is responsible for the pumping of blood around the developing embryo. Cardiac specification occurs very early on during embryonic development.
Are cardiac cells differentiated?
Adult human cardiomyocytes are considered terminally differentiated cells. Although a small percentage of the cardiomyocytes may have proliferation capacity, it is not sufficient to replace injured or dead cardiomyocytes, for example, following myocardial injury.
Why are P19 cells used?
P19 cells provide valuable formation of both neuronal cells and muscle cells in vitro. Since P19 cells are easy to maintain and culture compared to other embryonic stem cells, they are a convenient model to perform developmental studies in vitro.
How do you identify cardiomyocytes?
Cardiomyocyte shape Surface characteristics and cell shape can be used to identify cardiomyocytes, in addition to several transcription factor genes. Cardiac cells can be identified by contractile myofibrillar proteins, some (and hopefully more to come) surface proteins, and striations along with shape and length.
What are iPSC derived cardiomyocytes?
iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes cultures include spontaneously beating cells and while immature in culture the cells co-express a mixture of atrial, ventricular and nodal markers – a diffferent expression profile to adult cardiomyocytes.
How do you differentiate iPS?
Directed Differentiation of iPS Cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) are generated by reprogramming adult somatic cells. Following isolation, somatic cells are cultured in vitro and transduced with expression vectors encoding transcription factors associated with pluripotency.
How do you differentiate IPSC into cardiomyocytes?
Patient-specific cardiomyocytes can easily be derived by reprograming adult somatic cells into iPSCs and then differentiating these into cardiomyocytes. ESCs and iPSCs have the potential to form a teratoma if injected directly into the heart,16 and thus must be differentiated into cardiomyocytes prior to implantation.
Do humans have pluripotent stem cells?
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), which include human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), can self-renew indefinitely in culture while maintaining the ability to become almost any cell type in the human body (Takahashi et al., 2007; Thomson et al., 1998; Yu et al., 2007).
What is a cardiomyocyte?
Cardiomyocytes are the cells responsible for generating contractile force in the intact heart. • Specialized cardiomyocytes form the cardiac conduction system, responsible for control of rhythmic beating of the heart.
What is special about cardiomyocytes?
Cardiomyocytes. Cardiomyocytes carry out the contractile function of the heart. The majority of them are terminally differentiated postmitotic cells exhibiting very limited regenerative potential.
How do you differentiate iPSC into cardiomyocytes?
What are atrial cardiomyocytes?
Atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes form the muscular walls of the heart (the myocardium). Atrial myocytes have a different ultrastructure compared to ventricular myocytes. They have differential gene expression patterns regarding, e.g., transcription factors, structural proteins, and ion channels (2).