What type of sample would you take to diagnose meningitis by suspected enterovirus?
It is recommended that, in addition to performance of CSF PCR, fecal samples collected from patients with suspected enteroviral meningitis should be tested by PCR, especially when the duration of symptoms is >2 days.
How do you diagnose enterovirus?
Non-polio enteroviruses and parechoviruses can be detected in stool or rectal swabs and respiratory specimens (including from the throat). Depending on the symptoms, other specimen types such as cerebrospinal fluid, blister fluid, and blood can be collected for testing.
Is meningitis an enterovirus?
Causes. Non-polio enteroviruses are the most common cause of viral meningitis in the United States. Only a small number of people infected with enteroviruses will develop meningitis.
Can blood culture detect meningitis?
Blood Tests If present with meningitis, a bacterial infection is usually to blame. (Viral meningitis does not typically involve the blood and is not associated with sepsis.) A blood culture may be done if a bacterial infection is suspected.
How does enterovirus cause meningitis?
How is enteroviral meningitis transmitted? The non-polio enteroviruses that cause meningitis are transmitted faecal-orally. The enteroviruses live in the human gastro-intestinal tract, and are shed in the faeces. Enteroviruses are very stable in the environment and can live outside human body for days.
What virus can cause meningitis?
Viral meningitis is usually mild and often clears on its own. Most cases in the United States are caused by a group of viruses known as enteroviruses, which are most common in late summer and early fall. Viruses such as herpes simplex virus, HIV , mumps virus, West Nile virus and others also can cause viral meningitis.
What causes viral meningitis?
Is enterovirus the flu?
Enteroviruses often cause what is known as the “summer flu.” They can also cause a rash known as hand-foot-and-mouth disease. This is generally caused by coxsackievirus, a type of enterovirus. But in some cases, an enterovirus can be more severe and cause complications.
How common is enterovirus meningitis?
Enteroviruses are the most common cause of viral meningitis, resulting in an estimated 75,000 cases annually in the United States (4, 7). Diagnosis of enterovirus infection of the central nervous system has been improved significantly by PCR assessment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the detection of viral RNA (3).
Can meningitis be cultured?
The diagnosis of bacterial meningitis is made by culture of the CSF sample. The opening pressure should be measured, and the fluid sent for cell count (and differential count), chemistry (ie, CSF glucose and protein), and microbiology (ie, Gram stain and cultures).