What is the example of alpha toxins?
Alpha toxin or alpha-toxin refers to several different protein toxins produced by bacteria, including: Staphylococcus aureus alpha toxin, a membrane-disrupting toxin that creates pores causing hemolysis and tissue damage.
What diseases are caused by alpha toxin?
α-Toxin is the archetypal β-barrel pore-forming membrane-damaging cytotoxin . It is a proven virulence factor in several animal infection models and is essential for infections which disrupt epithelial barriers such as in the lung (pneumonia) , the cornea (keratoconjunctivitis) and the skin (dermonecrosis).
Which is the most toxic alpha toxin?
This toxin has been shown to be the key virulence factor in infection with C. perfringens; the bacterium is unable to cause disease without this toxin. Further, vaccination against the alpha toxin toxoid protects mice against C. perfringens gas gangrene.
Which type of toxin is produced in food by Clostridium?
Abstract. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is responsible for food poisoning. Clostridium perfringens is the second or third cause of reported foodborne disease outbreaks, and most of the outbreaks occur in collective restaurants.
How does alpha toxin work?
The alpha toxin of Staphylococcus aureus is a pore forming toxin that penetrates host cell membranes causing osmotic swelling, rupture, lysis and subsequently cell death.
What toxin is responsible for Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning?
Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is an intoxication that results from the consumption of foods containing sufficient amounts of one (or more) preformed enterotoxin [1,2].
What type of toxin does Clostridium perfringens have?
Clostridium perfringens uses its large arsenal of protein toxins to produce histotoxic, neurologic and intestinal infections in humans and animals. The major toxins involved in diseases are alpha (CPA), beta (CPB), epsilon (ETX), iota (ITX), enterotoxin (CPE), and necrotic B-like (NetB) toxins.
What is the role of alpha toxin in the pathogenesis S. aureus?
We speculate that α-toxin affects S. aureus phenotypic growth on vaginal mucosa by promoting tissue disruption and biofilm formation. Further, α-toxin mutants (hla−) are not benign colonizers, but rather form a different type of infection, which we have termed high density pathogenic variants (HDPV).
What does exfoliative toxin do?
Abstract. Exfoliative toxins (ETs) are secreted virulence factors produced by staphylococci. These serine proteases specifically cleave desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) in mammals and are key elements in staphylococcal skin infections.
What is the function of Pneumolysin?
Pneumolysin is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) toxin that forms lytic pores in host membranes and mediates pneumococcal disease pathogenesis by modulating inflammatory responses.
Who produces alpha toxin?
Aflatoxins are a family of toxins produced by certain fungi that are found on agricultural crops such as maize (corn), peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts. The main fungi that produce aflatoxins are Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which are abundant in warm and humid regions of the world.
Is there a beta2 toxin in freshwater fish?
This is the first report of C. perfringens alpha, beta, epsilon, beta2 toxins in freshwater fish and of beta, epsilon toxins in fish in general, and is the first discovery that the beta2 toxin could be detected in strains of type B. The origin of this bacterium and its importance to human food poisoning in freshwater fish is discussed.
What is alpha toxin and how does it work?
Alpha toxin is a phospholipase that both disrupts cell membranes leading to lysis and tissue necrosis and activates platelets leading to highly occlusive thrombi Timothy J. Foster, Joan A. Geoghegan, in Molecular Medical Microbiology (Second Edition), 2015
What is beta toxin from C perfringens?
Beta toxin is the main disease causing agent in type B strains of C. perfringens, which usually manifest as enterotoxemia in infantile mammals, particularly piglets, calves, foal, and lambs . In humans, this condition is known as pig bel, and is not very common in most developed nations.
What are the 4 types of toxins produced by bacteria?
Type A bacteria produce alpha toxin, type B bacteria produce alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins, type C bacteria produce alpha and beta toxins, type D bacteria produce alpha and epsilon toxins, and type E bacteria proteins produce alpha and iota toxins .