What is your oropharyngeal?
The oropharynx is the middle part of the pharynx (throat), behind the mouth. The pharynx is a hollow tube about 5 inches long that starts behind the nose and ends where the trachea (windpipe) and esophagus (tube from the throat to the stomach) begin.
What is N2b cancer?
N2b means that more than one lymph node contain cancer cells on the same side of the neck as the cancer. None of these nodes are more than 6cm across. The cancer has not spread into tissue surrounding the lymph node.
What is the last stage of mouth cancer?
Stage IV is the most advanced stage of mouth cancer. It may be any size, but it has spread to: nearby tissue, such as the jaw or other parts of the oral cavity.
What is screening for TNM?
A system to describe the amount and spread of cancer in a patient’s body, using TNM. T describes the size of the tumor and any spread of cancer into nearby tissue; N describes spread of cancer to nearby lymph nodes; and M describes metastasis (spread of cancer to other parts of the body).
What is T1N0M0?
Small tumour size and axillary lymph node negativity (T1N0M0) are significant indicators of excellent outcome in invasive breast cancer justifying local treatment as the only form of therapy (Bergh and Holmquist 2001; Colpaert et al, 2001; Isaacs et al, 2001; Morabiot et al, 2003).
What does cM0 mean?
cM0(i+): Small numbers of cancer cells are found in blood or bone marrow (found only by special tests), or tiny areas of cancer spread (no larger than 0.2 mm) are found in lymph nodes away from the underarm, collarbone, or internal mammary areas.
What are lymph nodes for?
Lymph nodes filter substances that travel through the lymphatic fluid, and they contain lymphocytes (white blood cells) that help the body fight infection and disease. There are hundreds of lymph nodes found throughout the body. They are connected to one another by lymph vessels.
Is the oropharynx the throat?
The part of the throat at the back of the mouth behind the oral cavity. It includes the back third of the tongue, the soft palate, the side and back walls of the throat, and the tonsils.
What is the back of the throat called?
The throat (pharynx) is a muscular tube that runs from the back of your nose down into your neck. It contains three sections: the nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx, which is also called the hypopharynx.
What is the small tongue at back of throat called?
The epiglottis is a tongue-like flap of tissue at the back of the throat. Ordinarily it prevents food and liquid from entering the windpipe when one swallows. In epiglottitis, a rare but serious condition, this structure becomes infected, usually by bacteria called Haemophilus influenzae type B.
What is T4a and T4b?
T4a: The tumor has spread to the cricoids, the ring-shaped cartilage near the bottom of the larynx, or thyroid cartilage and/or the tissue beyond the larynx. T4b: The tumor has spread to the area in front of the spine or the chest area, or it encases the arteries.
What is the difference between N2b and N2c cancer?
N2b: Cancer has spread to more than 1 lymph node on the same side as the primary tumor, and none measures larger than 6 cm. There is no ENE. N2c: Cancer has spread to more than 1 lymph node on either side of the body, and none measures larger than 6 cm. There is no ENE. N3a: The cancer is found in a lymph node and is larger than 6 cm.
What is the difference between T2 and T4 cancer?
T2: The tumor is 2 cm or smaller, and the depth of invasion is between 5 and 10 mm. Or, the tumor is larger than 2 cm but not larger than 4 cm, and the depth of invasion is 10 mm or less. T3: The tumor is larger than 4 cm, or it is any tumor with a depth of invasion greater than 10 mm. T4: This is moderately advanced or very advanced local disease.
What is T1 to T4 larynx tumor?
It is a very early cancer where cancer cells are found in only 1 layer of tissue. When describing T1 to T4 tumors, doctors divide the larynx into 3 regions: the glottis, the supraglottis, and the subglottis (see the Introduction ).