What does phytoene synthase do?
Phytoene synthase (PSY) catalyzes the condensation of two geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) molecules into one phytoene molecule and is the committal step that diverts carbon flux away from competing pathways and toward carotenoid biosynthesis (Hirschberg 2001; Rodríguez-Villalón et al.
What is plant phytoene synthase?
Phytoene synthase (PSY) gene is a functional gene used to study plant growth and development with VIGS technology. PSY has been found to regulate the metabolism of carotenoids and is an important enzyme responsible for production of natural pigments of cotton.
Why is phytoene good for the skin?
Phytoene can notably stimulate cell renewal to promote skin wound healing in vitro. In vivo, ex vivo and clinical studies have further demonstrated the antioxidant activity of phytoene on skin explants, as well as its ability to enhance skin regeneration, elasticity and firmness.
Which of the following organisms is the gene for phytoene synthase extracted?
This version only contained the phytoene synthase (Psy) gene from daffodil and the carotene desaturase (CrtI) gene from the bacterium Pantoea ananatis (previously known as Erwinia uredovora).
What is A benefit of genetic engineering?
Some benefits of genetic engineering in agriculture are increased crop yields, reduced costs for food or drug production, reduced need for pesticides, enhanced nutrient composition and food quality, resistance to pests and disease, greater food security, and medical benefits to the world’s growing population.
What is the molecular formula of phytoene?
C40H64Phytoene / Formula
How does Golden Rice work?
Golden rice is a genetically modified, biofortified crop. Biofortification increases the nutritional value of crops. Golden rice is genetically modified to produce beta-carotene, which is not normally present in rice. Beta-carotene is converted into vitamin A when metabolized by the human body.
What makes Golden Rice Golden?
The endosperm of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa) is yellow due to the accumulation of beta-carotene (provitamin A) and xanthophylls. The product of the two carotenoid biosynthesis transgenes used in Golden Rice, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the bacterial carotene desaturase (CRTI), is lycopene, which has a red color.
What are the three main techniques of genetic engineering?
Genetic engineering is accomplished in three basic steps. These are (1) The isolation of DNA fragments from a donor organism; (2) The insertion of an isolated donor DNA fragment into a vector genome and (3) The growth of a recombinant vector in an appropriate host.
How are lycopene and β-carotene synthesized?
The two represented molecules lycopene and β-carotene are synthesized by geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) synthase (encoded by CrtE), phytoene synthase (encoded by CrtB), and phytoene desaturase (encoded by CrtI).
Which phytoene desaturase inhibitors are used in cotton?
Only two phytoene desaturase inhibitors, fluridone and nor-flurazon, are commercially available, and, of these, only norflurazon is used on the agronomic crop cotton. Diflufenican, another phytoene desaturase inhibitor, is being developed for use in wheat and barley. Norflurazon is generally used as a pre-emergence, soil-applied herbicide.
How do you synthesize squalene from FPP?
Squalene synthase (EC 18.104.22.168) catalyzes the synthesis of squalene from FPP in two distinct steps ( Scheme 11 ). In the first reaction, two molecules of FPP are condensed to form presqualene diphosphate (PSPP).
What is the best phytoene inhibitor for wheat?
Diflufenican, another phytoene desaturase inhibitor, is being developed for use in wheat and barley. Norflurazon is generally used as a pre-emergence, soil-applied herbicide. Several important crops are not resistant to it and there is sometimes phytotoxicity to cotton.